The pituitary causes for abnormalities in sperm include:
(1) Pituitary tumors
Excess prolactin or growth hormone can result in sperm abnormalities, although the mechanism has not been well worked out in the male. Pituitary LH or FSH secreting tumors are more common in men than in the female and may result in spermatogenic dysfunction.
(2) Excessive circulating prolactin concentration
This is associated with impotence (abnormalities in erection and ejaculation) rather than abnormal spermatogenesis
(3) Pituitary damage
Hemorrhage or thrombosis around the pituitary gland can result in a deficiency of the gonadotropins (FSH and LH) as well as the other pituitary hormones (ACTH, prolactin, TSH, growth hormone). Adrenal insufficiency in this context can be life threatening.
(4) Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
These are not clearly associated with male factor infertility. Thyroid disease also is not as common in the male as it is in the female.
A rare condition in which excess circulating iron overloads the pituitary gland with iron deposits to cause an isolated gonadotropin (FSH or LH) deficiency and possible gonadal atrophy (in up to 60% of men with the disorder)
Available Case Reports: